When the pressure of the engine's intake air is increased, its temperature will also increase. In addition, heat soak from the hot exhaust gases spinning the turbine may also heat the intake air. The warmer the intake air the less dense, and the less oxygen available for the combustion event, which reduces volumetric efficiency. Not only does excessive intake-air temperature reduce efficiency, it also leads to engine knock, or detonation, which is destructive to engines.
Turbocharger units often make use of an intercooler (also known as a charge air cooler), to cool down the intake air. Intercoolers are often tested for leaks during routine servicing, particularly in trucks where a leaking intercooler can result in a 20% reduction in fuel economy.